A good recordkeeping system includes a summary of your business transactions. Business transactions are ordinarily summarized in books called journals and ledgers.
A journal is a book where you record each business transaction shown on your supporting documents. You may have to keep separate journals for transactions that occur frequently.
A ledger is a book that contains the totals from all of your journals. It is organized into different accounts.
Electronic Records: All requirements that apply to hard copy books and records also apply to business records which are maintained using electronic accounting software, point of sale software, financial software or any other electronic records system. The electronic system must provide a complete and accurate record of your data that is accessible to the IRS.
Whether you keep paper or electronic journals and ledgers and how you keep them depends on the type of business you are in. For example, a recordkeeping system for a small business might include the following items:
- Business checkbook
- Daily and monthly summary of cash receipts
- Check disbursements journal
- Depreciation worksheet
- Employee compensation records
What is an IRS audit?
An IRS audit is a review/examination of an organization’s or individual’s accounts and financial information to ensure information is being reported correctly, according to the tax laws, to verify the amount of tax reported is substantially correct.
Selecting a return for audit does not always suggest that an error has been made. Returns are selected using a variety of methods, including:
- Random selection and computer screening – sometimes returns are selected based solely on a statistical formula.
- Document matching – when payor records, such as Forms W-2 or Form 1099, don’t match the information reported.
- Related examinations – returns may be selected for audit when they involve issues or transactions with other taxpayers, such as business partners or investors, whose returns were selected for audit.
An audit may be conducted by mail or through an in-person interview and review of the taxpayer’s records. The interview may be at an IRS office (office audit) or at the taxpayer’s home, place of business, or accountant’s office (field audit). The IRS will tell you what records are needed. Audits can result in no changes or changes. Any proposed changes to your return will be explained.
Should your account be selected for audit, you will be notified in two ways:
- By mail, or
- By telephone
In the case of a telephone contact, the IRS will still send a letter confirming the audit. E-mail notification is not used by the IRS.
Your Rights During an Audit
Your Right as a taxpayer, explains your rights as a taxpayer as well as the examination, appeal, collection, and refund processes. These rights include:
- A right to professional and courteous treatment by IRS employees.
- A right to privacy and confidentiality about tax matters.
- A right to know why the IRS is asking for information, how the IRS will use it and what will happen if the requested information is not provided.
- A right to representation, by oneself or an authorized representative.
- A right to appeal disagreements, both within the IRS and before the courts.
The length of each audit varies depending on the type of audit, the complexity of items being reviewed, the availability of information being requested, the availability of both parties for scheduling of meetings and your agreement or disagreement with the findings.
You will be provided with a written request for specific documents needed.
The law requires you to retain records used to prepare your return. Those records generally should be kept for three years from the date the tax return was filed.
The IRS does accept some electronic records. If records are kept electronically, the IRS may request those in lieu of or in addition to other types of records. Contact your auditor to determine what can be accepted to ensure a software program is compatible with the IRS’s.
An audit can be concluded in three ways:
- No change: an audit in which you have substantiated all of the items being reviewed and results in no changes.
- Agreed: an audit where the IRS proposed changes and the taxpayer understands and agrees with the changes.
- Disagreed: an audit where the IRS has proposed changes and the taxpayer understands, but disagrees with the changes.
Who Can Represent You Before the IRS?
Many people use a tax professional to prepare their taxes. Tax professionals with an IRS Preparer Tax Identification Number (PTIN) can prepare a return for a fee. If you choose a tax pro, you should know who can represent you before the IRS. There are new rules this year, so the IRS wants you to know who can represent you and when they can represent you.
Representation rights, also known as practice rights, fall into two categories:
- Unlimited Representation
- Limited Representation
Unlimited representation rights allow a credentialed tax practitioner to represent you before the IRS on any tax matter. This is true no matter who prepared your return. Credentialy Tax Professional who have unlimited representation rights include:
- Enrolled Agent (Tax Expert Federally Licenced)
- Certified Public Accountants